Wednesday, May 4, 2011


Project report of Dairy farm

Young entrepreneurs

Young entrepreneurs changing agri-business in India

Tapash Talukdar, ET Bureau, Oct 6, 2008, 12.00am IST
Turning passion into work

Rahul Gala loves technology. And he loves it so much that he has transformed the methods of agriculture in the arid region of Kutch. Today, he logs on to his computer in the morning, feeds in the data and that's it. The rest is taken care by the system—right from the irrigation to fertigation in his farm.

He grows export-quality dates and mangoes by installing a first-of-its-kind computer aided technology in India. "I can feed data for a week's schedule and my system does it for the farm right from the irrigation to fertigation," says the 30-year-old Gala, who's director of Jalbindu Agri Tech.

After returning from Australia to his native village Ratual (near Bhuj), Gala aimed to become an agri-entrepreneur. What helped in installing this technology was his degree in horticulture from Queensland University in Australia. He exploited an untapped opportunity and transformed the dynamics of methods of production.

Currently, he grows 'barhi' (a fresh variety of dates) over 12 acres of land and has sown more than 600 date plants. Each plant is expected to produce 50-70 kg of dates, which is set for despatch to Europe and Dubai under his brand Golden Dates. What's more surprising is that fellow farmers near his village are getting accustomed to his technology and are increasingly becoming e-producers.

"Agriculture is going to create huge opportunities in India. The need is dynamism and professionalism," says Gala. Many including Reliance, Essar and Atul Group have shown interest in his technology. "But I like to work on my own methods and a create sense of ownership among farmers," he adds. He has already tied-up with seven super-specialty stores in Mumbai to supply dates and mangoes and is set to invest close to Rs 6 crore in cold-storage facilities to keep his produce fresh for exports.

Agriculture in India is transforming its practices. As young and charged-up entrepreneurs are joining the fray, commodities are being turned into value-added products and premium prices can be demanded from various retail outlets. With the same available resources, young entrepreneurs are modifying their business-models and exploiting market opportunities to improve their lifestyles. This is not only helping the entrepreneur but also encouraging farmers to shift to a better world.

With a hope to make south Gujarat (an NRI-belt) the rose hub of the country, Kumar Patel returned to his village Kutched (25 kms from Valsad) after working with a few consulting firms in the US. Now Patel, at 34, has just roped in 15 rose producing villagers and entered into a buy-back arrangement with them to market their products under his popular brand—'Best Roses'.

His Rs 15 crore rose company has already started exporting to Japan, Holland, Europe, Dubai and the US with many more negotiations going on. Patel, who is also an MBA from San Francisco, recently established a hydroponics plant (the first in India) in his rose garden.

"Most of the farmers are illiterate and belong to our community which has been, for some time, baffled with conventional sugarcane and paddy production. Now, they are earning more than 40% profits by growing quality roses," says Patel.

He adds that the strength of his business lies in having more units from the region to compete in the global market since labour is cheaper and his village is geographically well-placed to for timely cargo movement. Best Roses produces nearly 10 million roses per annum at an average market price of Rs 3.50 per stem, mostly imported from Kenya. It offers a range of roses—bugatti, aloha, aqua, avalance, Bordeaux, among others.


The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) is a test administered to evaluate the English language skills of non-English speaking candidates who seek to pursue education programmes in, or immigrate to, English speaking countries. The test is designed to assess the candidate's ability to understand spoken and written English in academic and social contexts and also to use the language to communicate in spoken and written forms.
The IELTS test is conducted by the following educational bodies in partnership:
1. University of Cambridge Local Examination Syndicate (UCLES)
2. The British Council
3. IDP Educational Body, Australia (its subsidiary is IELTS Australia Pvt. Ltd.)
IELTS scores are accepted by educational institutes, professional bodies and government undertakings, as well as for immigration processing, in Australia, New Zealand, U.K., Canada and certain American universities (like Princeton and Duke), where the IELTS scores are accepted in lieu of TOEFL scores.
The objective of the test is to assess a candidate's ability to understand and communicate in English in academic and social contexts. To make this assessment, the following skills are specifically tested.
1. The ability to read and comprehend written, academic or training language.
2. The ability to write assignments in a style that is appropriate for university study or within a training context.
3. The ability to understand spoken language in lecture format as well as in formal and informal conversational styles.
4. The ability to speak on general and given topics in formal and informal situations.

Description of the Test:
The IELTS test has two versions:
1. The Academic Module - This module is intended for candidates seeking entry to a university or institution of higher education for degree and diploma courses (i.e. those seeking undergraduate or postgraduate courses).
2. The General Training Module - This module is intended for students seeking entry to a secondary school or to vocational training courses. This module is also meant for candidates seeking immigration to an English speaking country. The two versions do not carry the same weight and are not interchangeable.
All candidates are tested on reading, writing, speaking and listening skills. While the Speaking and Listening sections are common for the Academic and General versions of the test, the Reading and Writing sections are different.

Test Format:
The IELTS has four parts:

  No. of sections Time allotted Score
Listening 4 sections 30 min 0 to 9
Speaking 3 sections 15-20 min 0 to 9
Reading 3 passages 60 min 0 to 9
Writing 2 tasks 60 min 0 to 9
Total   3 hours(approx) 0 to 9

1. Listening Section - This consists of 4 parts with 10 questions each, totalling 40 questions, to be completed in around 30 minutes. While the recording is played you get time to read the questions and to write and check your answers. You then have 10 minutes to transfer your answers to the answer sheet.
2. Reading Section (Academic or General) -This section consists of 3 reading passages with a total of 40 questions. The three texts , together, contain between 2000 and 2750 words. The total time allotted is 60 minutes.
•The Reading Test gets progressively tougher through the paper. In each section of the Reading Test there will be 13 or 14 questions to each passage.
•While the General Training reading has texts from notices, advertisements, booklets, newspapers, magazines and books, the Academic reading has texts with complex language and precise or elaborated expression, from newspapers, magazines, journals and books.
3. Writing Section (Academic or General) -This section consists of two writing tasks. The total time allotted is 60 minutes.
Writing-Task 1(Academic)
•The IELTS Academic Writing Task 1 is an information transfer task related to the factual content of an input - graph(s), table(s) or diagram(s). It can be combinations of these inputs.
•Sometimes you have to describe a process shown in a diagram.
•Time allotted - 20 minutes
•Word limit - 150 words
Writing-Task 1(General)
•For the IELTS General Writing Task 1, you must write a letter elaborating on a given problem.
•The Letter will require an explanation of the situation, and often involves a request for necessary information.
•You should write in the style appropriate for the type of letter required-either personal, semi-formal or formal.
•Time allotted - 20 minutes
•Word limit - 150 words
Writing- Task 2
•In Task 2 , you are asked to write an essay on a given Topic
•Time - 40 minutes
•Word Length - 250 words at least
4. Speaking Section – The total time allotted to this section is 11 to 14 minutes.
•The test consists of an interview between the examiner and the candidate, which is recorded.
•The Speaking Test is divided into 3 sections:
•Section 1 begins with some general introductory questions. This is followed by some questions on personal information similar to the type of questions one would ask when meeting someone for the first time. Finally the examiner asks a series of questions of 2 topics of general interest. (4 - 5 minutes)
•Personal Questions - Family, Hometown, Interests, Job/Study, Ambitions,etc
•Likes & Dislikes
•Questions to check familiarity with tenses.
•Section 2 is a monologue by the candidate. The examiner gives the candidate a Cue Card with a subject and a few guiding questions on it. The student talks for 1 to 2 minutes on this subject, as the examiner may decide. The student gets 1 minute to prepare his talk and is provided with paper and a pencil to make some brief notes. After the candidate's talk, the examiner asks 1 or 2 brief questions to finish the section. (3 - 4 minutes)
•Section 3 - Here the examiner asks some more questions generally related to the subject spoken about in section 2. These questions are more demanding and require some critical analysis on the part of the candidate.
The duration of the entire test is around 2 hours 45 minutes.
The result consists of a score in each of the four skills (Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking) which is then arranged to give the Overall Band Score or final mark. Performance is rated in each skill on a scale of 9 to 1. The nine overall Bands are as follows:
9 Expert user            4 Limited User
8 Very good user      3 Extremely limited user
7 Good user             2 Intermittent user
6 Competent user     1 Non user
5 Modest user           0 Did not attempt the test

For instance:
In Reading / Listening

Score out of 40 Band Score
39-40 9
37-38 8
32-36 7
25-31 6
17-24 5
10-16 4
4-9 3
2-3 2
1 1

Pass Mark:
There is no fixed pass mark in IELTS. The acceptability of a score is totally at the discretion of the institute applied to, or govt. body (in case of immigration). However, as a general rule, scores below Band 5 are considered to be too low and above Band 6 are deemed to be Adequate to Good. Band 5 to Band 6 scores are borderline scores. An overall score of Band 6.5 is mostly accepted as a good score. The individual module's Band score is considered as per the requirement.
For example, an Engineering Institute will emphasise on a good Band Score (6.5 or above) in the Listening Module, as the institute's mode of teaching is lecture-oriented, whereas if a person is seeking a job in public-relations, then greater weightage is given to a good Band Score (6.5 or more) in the Speaking Module.
In the Listening module and the Reading module, each question carries one mark and there is no negative marking for incorrect answers. The overall score is converted into a Band score from 9 to 1. The other two modules (Writing and Speaking) are rated as per the effectiveness, language skills, communication ability, clarity, fluency and spontaneity of the candidate. The candidate must try to gauge and given comply with the examiner's assessment method.
Test Dates:
For latest test dates, contact the nearest BRITISH COUNCIL office or visit The Listening, Reading and Writing Modules are conducted on the same day as the test date, but the Speaking Module is conducted either 2 days before or after the examination date for the other three modules. This is at the discretion of the test centre, subject to the availability of slots.
The candidates can appear as many times as they want. The test is a PBT (Paper Based Test) but some selected centres offer CBT (Computer Based Test) on request of the candidate.
How to Apply:
The IELTS application form can be procured free of cost from the British Council. This, along with the necessary documents (as prescribed in the application form), needs to be submitted to the nearest British Council, along with a Demand Draft for Rs 7200/- in the name of "British Council Division" payable at British Council, Chennai (for South-India region).
The D.D. should be payable at British Council,
New Delhi  -  for North India
Mumbai     -  for West India
Chennai    -  for South India
Kolkata     -  for East India

Registration can now be done online as well, the websites are

It is better to register at least 2-3 weeks before the exam date. Based on your performance, our tutors will recommend the exam date
If you register online through the British council, the payment of the examination fees can be made either through demand draft or by cash payment at ICICI bank. The payment should reach the British council within 3 days of the online registration at the latest. You can also pay the exam fees by credit card when you register online.
If registering through IDP Australia, the demand draft has to be drawn in favour of IELTS India Project, payable at New Delhi. If registering online, Rs. 7,400/- is payable by Credit card / Debit card.
The results reach the candidates two weeks after the test, by post. In case a candidate needs to obtain the results within a week, an extra amount is to be paid, as mentioned in the application form.
The IELTS exam result is available online 13 days after the date of exam. The Test Report Form (TRF) will be mailed to your postal address.
Validity of Scores:
The Band score obtained is valid for two years. For applications for admission to an educational institute, the latest IELTS score is considered.
Eligibility Criterion:
Any one who has attained the age of 18 can write the test. It is compulsory to hold a passport to register for the examination.


Thursday, April 7, 2011


Lead Sponsors

Ministry of Agril      National Bank         Small Farmers         National Institute
Govt. of India         for Agril. & Rural    Agribusiness           of Agricultural
New Delhi              Development          Consortium (SFAC) Extension Management
                             (NABARD)                                           (MANAGE), Hyderabad

          There are 11,900 graduates from agriculture and allied sectors passing out from agricultural universities in India while there are 2405 graduates in agriculture and allied fields passing  out every year from Maharashtra state. However, only 2000 are able to get employment in Government/Private sectors.  Thus there remains a vast pool of around 9900 graduates in the country who can support  and boost agricultural production process if viable business opportunities are provided to them.
          On the other hand there exists an agricultural extension system which is fast shrinking resulting in wide extension gaps between those who require improved technologies and those who generate them.
          Thus in the aftermath of this wide extension gap and the vast pool of unemployed agriculture pass outs remains to be tapped to provide support to the extension system and ultimately to help improve agricultural productivity.  This gave birth to a unique and ambitions scheme to address teh twin objectives through the agri clinic and agri business centers scheme.

The Scheme

          The Agri Clinic and Agri business Center Scheme has been launched by the Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India, in association with NABARD and coordination with MANAGE, SFAC to take better methods of farming to each and every farmers across the country by tapping the expertise available in the large pool of agriculture graduates. The agriculture graduates can set up their own Agri Clinic and Agri business Center and provide professional extension services for the farming community across the country.


1.     To supplement the efforts of Government extension system
2.     To make available supplementary sources of input supply and services for the farmers.
3.     To provide gainful employment to agricultural graduates in emerging areas of agricultural sector.

Agri Clinic and Agri business Centers

          These are centers started by trained agriculture graduates which provide expert services and advice to farmers on cropping practices, technology dissemination, crop protection service, Market trends and prices of crops in markets and provide clinical services for plant and animal health which would enhance the productivity of crops and animals.  Agri business centers are those which provide inputs supply farm equiment on hire and such services.

Project Activities

          Agricultural graduates may choose from a range of potential areas given below:

Code            Area
Project 01     Soil, water quality and input testing lab service center
Project 02     Plant protection, service center
Project 03     Maintenance, repair and custom hiring of agricultural implements
Project 04     Agri service center including above three activities
Project 05     Seed processing units
Project 06     Micro propagation through plant tissue culture units
Project 07     Setting up of vermiculture, biofertilizers, biopesticides, biocontrol units
Project 08     Setting up of Apiaries
Project 09     Providing extension consultancy services
Project 10     Facilitation of agricultural insurance services
Project 11     Hatcheries and production of fish fingerlings
Project 12     Providing live stock health cover through veterinary dispensary
Project 13     Setting up of IT Kiosks
Project 14     Feed processing and testing unit
Project 15     Value added centers
Project 16     Setting up of cool chain
Project 17     Post harvest management centers
Project 18     Setting of storage structures and rural godowns
Project 19     Retail marketing outlets for processed products
Project 20     Rural marketing dealership of farm inputs and outputs.


          The scheme is open to agricultural graduates in subjects allied to agriculture like horticulture, sericulture, forestry, veterinary science, animal husbandry, dairy, poultry, Pisciculture, Agri engineering, food technology and other allied activities.


          Under the scheme, the unemployed agricultural graduates are provided start up training at designated training centers. The successful candidates can later apply for start up loans for any specified venture.

Project cost

          The project can be taken up by trained agri graduates either individually or on jointly/group basis. The outer ceiling for cost of project by an individual would be Rs. 10 lakh and for project project by a group would be Rs. 50 lakh.  The group may be of 5 of which one could be a management development and management.

Margin money

          1. Upto Rs. 10,000/-                   No Margin
          2. Over Rs. 10,000/-                   15-25% of project cost

Rate of interest

Size of loan

Rate of interest to ultimate beneficiary

Commercial bank
Regional rural bank
Co-operative bank
Up to Rs. 25,000/-
As detrmined by bank subject to max of PLR
As determined by bank
As determined by the SCB subject to minimum of 12%
Above Rs. 25,000/- upto Rs. 2.00 lakh
As detrmined by bank subject to max of PLR
As determined by bank
As determined by the SCB subject to minimum of 12%
Above Rs. 2.00 lakh
As detrmined by bank.
As determined by bank
As determined by the SCB subject to minimum of 12%
* Mortgage of land at Bank’s discretion


No Collateral security for a loan upto Rs. 5.0 lakhs as per the latest RBI Circular for the Agricultural graduates who have successfully completed the Agriclinics and Agribusiness Training.



          The period of loan will vary between 5-10 years depending on the activities. The repayment period may include a grace period which is discretionary extending up to a maximum of two years.

Training support

          As an integral part of the programme, specialized training is being provided to agricultural graduates interested in setting up such center.  Training programmes are being launched in recognized training institutes through out the country to prepare the professionals in entrepreneurship and agri business ventures.  The training is free for selected candidates for a period of two months in selected training institute.
          The Krishi Vigyan Kendra (PIRENS) Babhaleshwar has been designated as a recognized training center by MANAGE, Hyderabad after taking cognizance of its innovative extension methodology and unique professionalism in providing vocational training for rural youths. The first part of training covers the following subjects inthe field of entrepreneurship development.
  1. Agri Business Management
  2. Small Business Management
  3. General Marketing Management
  4. Agri-marketing Management
  5. Project Management
  6. Financial Management
  7. Information Technology

The second part consists of training in individual enterprises selected by the candidates.  It also includes exclusive visits to successful enterprises, market survey and project preparation and evaluation.

Opportunities at KVK, Babhaleshwar

          The KVK, Babhaleshwar is a premier agri-extension centers that was bestowed with BEST KVK AWARD by ICAR in recognition of its highly professional services extended for the farming community in an innovative strategic model.
          It has provided all the services and for the farming community to help increase the productivity of majority crops in the district. 
It possess adequate training infrastructure for the trainees from villages, extension functionaries of line departments in various emerging technologies.  The KVK has various demonstration units for imparting skill based training on the principles of learning by doing and seeing is believing.
          Various demonstration units that are operational at KVK are:

  1. Broiler poultry farm
  2. Crop demonstration farm
  3. Processing and bakery unit
  4. Mushroom production unit
  5. Mushroom spawn production unit
  6. Soil, water and plant tissue testing lab with Micronutrient Testing Facility
  7. Biofertilizers production lab
  8. Commercial Vermicompost unit
  9. A.V.Aids and Media production lab
  10. Spirulina production facility
  11. Nursery unit
  12. Bio fungicides and biocontrol agent production lab
  13. Botanicals production lab
  14. Modern information and communication technology Facility
  15. Steam distillation unit for processing of aromatic plants

Other infrastructure

          The KVK possesses adequate infrastructure which is most conducive to the incumbent training in acquiring the skills taught by an expert in house faculty.
          The KVK possesses ultra modern training hall with Internet connection and LCD projection device for better communication and skill imparting.  The KVK possesses residential accommodation for 40 trainees simultaneously at its hostel.  It also constitutes in-house boarding facility for trainees for long duration training.

What we do to the trainees

-         Provide adequate learning environment
-         Skill up gradation
-         Attitudinal change
-         Entrepreneurship development
-         Personality development
-         The WILL to WIN

For details contact